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Object oriented programming. A technology for writing programs
that are made up of self sufficient modules that contain all of the information
needed to manipulate a given data structure. The modules are created in class
hierarchies so that the code or methods of a class can be passed to other
modules. New object modules can be easily created by inheriting the
characteristics of existing classes. See: object, object oriented
Ongoing Process Capability Ongoing Process Capability is a long term measure of statistical process control or process performance. It differs from preliminary process capability by utilizing data from a longer time period so as to include all common causes of variation, in particular, those common causes that may result in process shifts affecting a number of sample intervals. Systematic or repetitive patterns of special cause may also be included if the underlying reasons for these special causes are understood. The time required for ongoing capability evaluation depend on the time required for the sources of variation to vary throughout their full ranges, but will typically be three to six months.
On-line. (IEEE) Pertaining to a system or mode of operation in which input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin or output data are transmitted directly to the point where they are used. For example, an airline reservation system. Contrast with batch. See: conversational, interactive, real time.
Operation and maintenance phase. (IEEE) The period of time in the software life cycle during which a software product is employed in its operational environment, monitored for satisfactory performance, and modified as necessary to correct problems or to respond to changing requirements.
Operation exception. (IEEE) An exception that occurs when a program encounters an invalid operation code.
Operational Definition A description in quantifiable terms of what to measure and the steps to follow to consistently measure it.
ORDINAL Ordered categories (ranking) with no information about distance between each category, i.e., rank ordering of several measurements of an output parameter
ORDINATE The vertical axis of a graph.
Organization Diagnostics The process of identifying organization problems with individuals, processes, procedures, technology, culture, etc.
Organize To arrange by systematic planning.
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OTM One Time Measure
OTP Outline Test Plan
Outcome the degree to which output meets the needs and expectations of the customer
OUTPUTS Products or services provided to others; the result of a process
P Control Chart
A control chart that determines the stability of a
process by finding what percentage of total units in a sample are defective.
Pareto chart A bar chart that orders data from the most frequent to the least frequent, allowing the analyst to determine the most important factor in a given situation or process.
Pareto Diagramme A chart which ranks, or places in order, common occurrences.
Pareto principle The idea that a few root problems are responsible for the large majority of consequences. The Pareto principle is derived from the work of Vilfredo Pareto, a turn-of-the-century Italian economist who studied the distributions of wealth in different countries. He concluded that a fairly consistent minority about 20% of people controlled the large majority about 80% of a society's wealth. This same distribution has been observed in other areas and has been termed the Pareto principle. It is defined by J.M. Juran as the idea that 80% of all effects are produced by only 20% of the possible causes.
Parts Per Million (PPM)PPM is a way of stating the performance of a process in terms of actual or projected defective material. PPM data can be used to indicate areas variation requiring attention.
Performance Measure An indicator that can be used to evaluate quality, cost, or cycle time characteristics of an activity or process usually against a target or standard value.
Performance requirement. (IEEE) A requirement that imposes conditions on a functional requirement; e.g., a requirement that specifies the speed. accuracy, or memory usage with which a given function must be performed.
PFMEA Process Failure Mode Effects Analysis: An analytical technique used to assure that potential process failure modes and associated causes have been considered and addressed.
Physical requirement. (IEEE) A requirement that specifies a physical characteristic that a system or system component must posses; e.g., material, shape, size, weight.
Pie chart A chart that compares groups of data to the whole data set by showing each group as a "slice" of the entire "pie." Pie charts are particularly useful for investigating what percentage each group represents.
Plan Do Study Act (PDSA or PDCA) Originally Shewhart's Plan Do Check Act or the application of the scientific method to engineering and management. Deming later changed Check to Study. A look before you leap approach to standardization or maintenance (Standardize Do Check Act), solving problems and improvement or reactive mode (Check Act Plan Do) and achieving opportunities and new developments or proactive mode (Plan Do Check Act). .
Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle A four-step improvement process originally conceived of by Walter A. Shewhart. The first step involves planning for the necessary improvement; the second step is the implementation of the plan; the third step is to check the results of the plan; the last step is to act upon the results of the plan. It is also known as the Shewhart cycle, the Deming cycle, and the PDCA cycle.
Platform. The hardware and software which must be present and functioning for an application program to run [perform] as intended. A platform includes, but is not limited to the operating system or executive software, communication software, microprocessor. network, input/output hardware, any generic software libraries, database management, user interface software, and the like.
Pokayoke Japanese approach to mistake proofing. Primarily activities for front line employees empowered to make changes to their work processes to enhance accuracy, safety, and efficiency.
Policy deployment Another name for hoshin planning.
Population A group of similar items from which a sample is drawn.
Often referred to as the universe.
PPAP Production Parts Approval Process
PPM Predictive Preventative Maintenance
Precision The closeness of agreement between randomly selected individual measurements or test results. Also see Accuracy.
Predictive Maintenance Maintenance performed on equipment just prior to the predicted breakdown of that equipment.
Preliminary Bill of Material An initial Bill of Material completed prior to design and print release.
Preliminary Process Capability Studies Preliminary Process Capability Studies are short term studies conducted to obtain early information on the performance of new or revised processes relative to internal or customer requirements. In many cases, preliminary studies should be conducted at several points in the evolution of new processes (e.g., at the equipment or tooling subcontractor's plant, after installation at the supplier's plant) These studies should be based on as many measurements as possible. When X Bar and R charts, at least twenty subgroups (typically three to five pieces) are required to obtain sufficient data for decision making. When this amount of data is not available, control charts should be started with whatever data is available.
Prevention The practice of eliminating unwanted variation a priori (before the fact), e.g., predicting a future condition from a control chart and then applying corrective action before the predicted event transpires.
Preventive Action Action(s) designed to prevent the occurrence of non-conformances, or non-conformities.
Preventive Maintenance Maintenance performed on equipment, with the intent on prolonging equipment life and/or preventing breakdown and malfunction.
Price of Non Quality (PONQ) What it costs to do things wrong, resulting in losses such as time, money and opportunity. An equation for estimating PONQ is: the amount of time required to fix a defect x the number of defects x the hourly wage rate (fully burdened with overhead, overtime, benefits, etc.).
Probability The chance of something happening; the percent or number of occurrences over a large number of trials.
Probability of an Event The number of successful events divided by the total number of trials.
Problem A deviation from a specified standard.
Problem Solving The process of solving problems; the isolation and control of those conditions which generate or facilitate the creation of undesirable symptoms.
Procedures Documented processes that are used when work affects more than one function or department of an organization.
Process A particular method of doing something, generally involving a number of steps or operations. (2) A series of actions that lead to a desired result; converting inputs into outputs. (3) A collection of activities that together produce a usable product or service by applying resources from one or more functional areas. (4) Combination of people, equipment, materials, methods, and environment that produce output.
Process Average The central tendency of a given process characteristic across a given amount of time or at a specific point in time.
Process capability 1. A statistical measure indicating the inherent variation for a given event in a stable process, usually defined as the process width divided by 6 sigma. 2. Competence of the process, based on tested performance, to achieve certain results.
Process capability index Measurement indicating the ability of a process to produce specified results. Cp and Cpk are two process capability indices.
Process Comparison A logical method of questioning that compares the process conditions when a non conforming output was produced with the process conditions when a conforming output was produced.
Process Control Operations with a built in finding and adjusting step to keep a product or service in conformance with the specifications.
Process Control Chart Any of a number of various types of graphs upon which data are plotted against specific control limits.
Process Decision Program Chart PDPC Chart is a method that graphically displays as many alternatives and contingencies that can be determined in advance to strategies for dealing with them can be determined in advance.
Process Flow Diagram Depicts the flow of material through the process, including any rework or repair operations.
Process Model Also Activity Model A graphic representation of a business process that exhibits the activities and their interdependencies that make up the business process to any desired level of detail. An activity model reveals the interactions between activities in terms of inputs and outputs while showing the controls placed on each activity and the types of resources assigned to each activity.
Process Portal Software which focuses the user of the Portal to the explicit knowledge required to solve his/her particular problem, or deal with a particular situation or series of events. Changes Implicit Knowledge to Explicit Knowledge.
Process Spread The range of values which a given process characteristic displays; this particular term most often applies to the range but may also encompass the variance. The spread may be based on a set of data collected at a specific point in time or may reflect the variability across a given amount of time.
Process Variation The variables in a process that affect outcomes. Two types of process variation special cause and common cause.
Producers Risk Probability of rejecting a lot when, in fact, the lot should have been accepted (see ALPHA RISK).
Product Assurance Plan A part of the Product Quality Plan. It is a prevention oriented management tool that addresses product design, process design, and when applicable software design.
Production database. The computer file that contains the establishment's current production data.
Production Part Approval Submissions The submissions are based on small quantities of parts taken from a significant production run made with production tooling, processes, and cycle times. Parts for production part approval are checked by the supplier to all engineering requirements.
Production Trial Run Product made using all production tools, processes, equipment, environment, facility, and cycle time.
Program design language. (IEEE) A specification language with special constructs and, sometimes, verification protocols, used to develop, analyze, and document a program design.
Program mutation. (IEEE) A computer program that has been purposely altered from the intended version to evaluate the ability of program test cases to detect the alteration. See: testing, mutation.
Program.(1) (ISO) A sequence of instructions suitable for processing. Processing may include the use of an assembler, a compiler, an interpreter, or another translator to prepare the program for execution. The instructions may include statements and necessary declarations. (2) (ISO) To design, write, and test programs. (~) (ANSI) In programming languages, a set of one or more interrelated modules capable of being executed. (4) Loosely, a routine. (5) Loosely, to write a routine.
Programming language. (IEEE) A language used to express computer programs. See: computer language, high-level language, low-level language.
programming standards. See: coding standards.
Project A problem. usually calling for planned action.
Project plan. (NIST) A management document describing the approach taken for a project. The plan typically describes work to be done, resources required, methods to be used, the configuration management and quality assurance procedures to be followed, the schedules to be met, the project organization, etc. Project in this context is a generic term. Some projects may also need integration plans, security plans, test plans, quality assurance plans, etc. See: documentation plan, software development plan, test plan, software engineering.
Proof of correctness. (NBS) The use of techniques of mathematical logic to infer that a relation between program variables assumed true at program entry implies that another relation between program variables holds at program exit.
protocol. achieving communication.
Prototyping. Using software tools to accelerate the software development process by facilitating the identification of required functionality during analysis and design phases. A limitation of this technique is the identification of system or software problems and hazards. See: rapid prototyping.