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Japanese Definition of Quality

" A system or means to economically produce goods or services which satisfy customer requirement "

(Focus to customer requirement)


"Implementing quality control effectively necessitates the co-operation of all people in the company, involving top management, managers, supervisors and workers in all areas of corporate activities such as market research, research and development, product planing, design, preparations for productions, purchasing, vendor management, manufacturing, inspection, sales and after sales services, as well as financial control, personnel administration and training and education".

Quality control carried out in this manner is called CWQC. Initially it started in heavy industries and focus was for existing product. Later due to high growth in 1960s emphasis was placed mainly on new product development in the automotive and household electric product. Now the quality assurance system is throughout all stages of design and production from getting market information, R&D, to quality planning, quality design, production preparations, purchasing, production, inspection, sales and service.

This gave recognition to the importance of new product development. Companies brought quality assurance from production stages to process flow. This gave birth to QFD. Quality Function Deployment means that responsibilities for producing a quality product must be assigned to all parts of an organisation.

Traditional method of customer satisfaction:

When a complaint or claim is raised it was analysed and diagnosed to find the cause. Measures were then devised and implemented to prevent its recurrence. This is called analytical approach. It seeks causes of the problem, hence can be called as a system that flows from downstream to upstream.

Need of Design approach

Such system uses elementary statistical system particularly Pareto analysis, C&E diagram etc. They are good for getting rid of problems in existing products.
They may not be effective for new product with a design approach. This is a method to find out a means to achieve a specific product objectives.

Starts from specific results Starts from specific objevtives
Tends to be preoccupied with partial problem Is comprehensive and can cover the entire the entire spectrum.
QFD adopts design approach and like analytical approach is a pillar supporting CWQC. (When we say CWQC it means TQM).

QFD uses 'Design Approach' to breakdown the objectives into segments and identifies specific means for achieving each segment. This activity can be broken into two fields viz.

a) Product quality deployment

b) Deployment of quality function

Product quality deployment refers to activities needed to convert customer required quality. This is defined as "converting the customer requirements into counter part characteristics, thus determining the design quality of the final product, and further, systematically deploying them to the quality of each part as well as functional component in relation to process element".

Product quality deployment often takes the form of a matrix of customer requirements and product quality characteristics.
The format may vary from company to company and meet specific requirement but it is typical.

Deployment of Quality Function

This talks about activities need to be carried out to assure to achieve customer required quality.
This is done by deploying quality related job function step by step with

a) series of objectives and

b) means down to the finest detail.

It is important that each department must be assigned specific responsibilities even after counter part quality characteristics have been set. Otherwise it will be difficult to assure that the required quality will be achieved. Here even though the job may be carried out by different areas it is done under the responsibility and authority of the sales department. Design department must make sure that these values can be maintained throughout such activities as R&D, design and trial production. After trial production full details i.e. a design listing of production specification with a progress report is sent to sales.

Sales after determining that the new product fulfills and satisfies customer requirements approve the product specification. Now come the stages of development and production. Japanese differs from Americans in this way. They proceed only when product meets the customer requirement for regular production. In case of America, products are designed and produced. Based on the customer's reaction, changes and improvements are made, accordingly.

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