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Inspection A manual testing technique in which program documents [specifications (requirements, design, source code or user's manuals are examined in a very formal and disciplined manner to discover errors, violations of standards and other problems. Checklists are a typical vehicle used in accomplishing this technique. See: static analysis, code audit, code inspection, code review, code walkthrough.

Inspection Activities
, such as measuring, examining, testing, gaging one or more characteristics of a product or service, and comparing these with specified requirements to determine conformity.

Unnaturally large fluctuations in a pattern.
installation and checkout phase (IEEE) The period of time in the software life cycle during which a software product is integrated into its operational environment and tested in this environment to ensure that it performs as required.

Instruction set
(1) (IEEE) The complete set of instructions recognized by a given computer or provided by a given programming language. (2) (ISO) The set of the instructions of a computer, of a programming language, or of the programming languages in a programming system. See: computer instruction set.

(1) (ANSI/IEEE) A program statement that causes a computer to perform a particular operation or set of operations. (2) (ISO) In a programming language, a meaningful expression that specifies one operation and identifies its operands, if any.

(NIBS) The insertion of additional code into a program in order to collect information about program behavior during program execution. Useful for dynamic analysis techniques such as assertion checking, coverage analysis, tuning.

Interface analysis
(IEEE) Evaluation of: (1) software requirements specifications with hardware, user, operator, and software interface requirements documentation, (2) software design description records with hardware, operator, and software interface requirements specifications, (3) source code with hardware, operator, and software interface design documentation, for correctness, consistency, completeness, accuracy, and readability. Entities to evaluate include data items and control items.

Interface requirement
(IEEE) A requirement that specifies an external item with which a system or system component must interact, or sets forth constraints on formats, timing, or other factors caused by such an interaction.

(1) (ISO) A shared boundary between two functional units, defined by functional characteristics, common physical interconnection characteristics, signal characteristics, and other characteristics, as appropriate The concept involves the specification of the connection of two devices having different functions. (2) A point of communication between two or more processes, persons, or other physical entities. (3) A peripheral device which permits two or more devices to communicate.

Interim Approval Permits
shipment of products for a specified time period or quantity.
Internal customer Someone within your organization, further downstream in a process, who receives the output of your work.

Interrelations Digraph
is a graphical representation of all the factors in a complicated problem, system, or situation. It is typically used in conjunction with one of the other quality tools, particularly the affinity diagram. Frequently the header cards from the affinity diagram are used as the starting point for the interrelations digraph.

Numeric categories with equal units of measure but no absolute zero point, i.e., quality scale or index.

Invalid inputs
1 (NBS) Test data that lie outside the domain of the function the program represents. (2) These are not only inputs outside the valid range for data to be input, i.e., when the specified input range is 50 to 100, but also unexpected inputs, especially when these unexpected inputs may easily occur; e,g., the entry of alpha characters or special keyboard characters when only numeric data is valid, or the input of abnormal command sequences to a program.

Ishikawa Diagram
A problem-solving tool that uses a graphic description of the various process elements to analyze potential sources of variation , or problems. [Same as Cause and Effect Diagram,,, or Fishbone Diagram]

, Kaoru One of Japan's quality control pioneers. He developed the cause & effect diagram (Ishikawa diagram) in 1943 and published many books addressing quality control. In addition to his work at Kawasaki, Ishikawa was a long-standing member of the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers and an assistant professor at the University of Tokyo.

Initial Sample Inspection Report

ISO 9000
A family of ISO standards that apply to quality management and quality assurance . Specifically, quality systems.